A super-spreader is an unusually contagious organism infected with a disease. In context of a human-borne illness, a super-spreader is an individual who is more likely to infect others, compared with a typical infected person. Such super-spreaders are of particular concern in epidemiology.
Some cases of super-spreading conform to the 80/20 rule, where approximately 20% of infected individuals are responsible for 80% of transmissions, although super-spreading can still be said to occur when super-spreaders account for a higher or lower percentage of transmissions. In epidemics with super-spreading, the majority of individuals infect relatively few secondary contacts.
Super-spreading events are shaped by multiple factors including a decline in herd immunity, nosocomial infections, virulence, viral load, misdiagnosis, airflow dynamics, immune suppression, and co-infection with another pathogen